Normal 0 RESEARCH PAPER ON JOB SATISFACTION OF CALL CENTER EMPLOYEES ABSTRACT Job satisfaction plays a vital role in life of man, because it affects positively on the personal and social adjustment of the individual. On the contrary job dissatisfaction adversely affects on the physical and mental health of the individual.  The relationship between job satisfaction and employee’s performance has always been discussed in organisational behaviour and human resource management literature. A highly satisfied employee need not necessarily be a profound performer. However, an employee, who is dissatisfied, can cause irreparable damage to the orgnisational effectiveness. Performance management system should be based on ideological underpinnings and a holistic context by strengthening the linkages among the key components such as performance planning, performance execution, performance appraisal, recognition and reward, and performance improvement on a continuous basis. The paper discusses performance management and job satisfaction of call center employees in Indore. Present study is based on the primary data collected from 188 call center employees through a pre-tested, structured, comprehensive questionnaire. The key issues were identification and definition of key performance areas, role clarity and direction, performance feedback and potential appraisal, and job rotation as a powerful tool to develop and unleash employee’s potential. Factor analysis highlighted the significance of three sub-systems of performance management system, i.e., performance planning and development, employee involvement and empowerment, and organisation-employee rapport. The paper concludes that the conducive and congenial physical, social, and psychological conditions present in the workplace have potential to enhance the job satisfaction of the call center employees.Introduction: Job satisfaction is a  complex phenomenon, because it is related to various casual factors like personal, social, cultural, environmental and financial.  The nature of the job is an important factor in deciding the level of job satisfaction of employees. More important is the long-term prospect of employment in the organization that, which creates a sense of involvement and commitment to the job among employees. Job satisfaction is an individual’s attitude towards the job or it is an individual’s reaction to the job itself.  Job satisfaction is also a positive emotional state that when a person fulfill his needs and aspirations.   Job satisfaction may be general or specific.   Many factors influence job satisfaction of the employees.  First and most important determinant is supervision and style of leadership.  Employee oriented leadership styles enhances a greater amount of job satisfaction.  On the other hand production oriented leader may cause low job satisfaction.  Job content factors like achievement, responsibility, recognition and advancement leads to job satisfaction.. Job satisfaction is intrinsic as well as extrinsic in nature. A satisfied employee derives his level of satisfaction from various sources. It is a feeling of affiliation that he drives out of his job context and the context in which he operates the job. There are various definitions of job satisfaction.  The resultant psyche leads to higher level of involvement, greater degree of participation, greater cost consciousness and timely maintenance of job schedules. Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the perception of one’s job as fulfilling one’s important job values, provided these values are compatible with one’s needs. Job satisfaction is the most widely researched subject in the area of human resource management. According to an estimate of Locke (1976) about 4000 articles have been published till 1976 in the area of job satisfactions. Yet there is perhaps not a single area in social science fraught with ambiguity or conflicting opinion of methodological nuances than the work satisfaction. Paradoxically there are very few areas more researched than Job satisfaction. Brayfield-Rothe (1951) used a scale to measure overall job satisfaction. This scale contains 18 items in relation to job satisfaction put in a semantic five point scale (strongly agree, agree, not sure, disagree, and strongly disagree). So the possible total scores varied from 18 to 90 with the undecided or neutral point at 45. A total score above neutral point explains ‘ satisfaction’ and below is the level of dissatisfaction. The degree of satisfaction can be observed from the relative distance of the respondents from the neutral points. As stated , large number of studies have been conducted on job satisfaction. These studies have brought variations in findings of job satisfactions and also on the context of the job behavior. In the earlier decades of study, Rothisberger and Dickson (1939) found no clear relationship between job satisfaction and performance whereas Vroom (1964) found a very weak relationship between job satisfaction and turnover. Studies conducted in the eighties and nineties found out that job factors are not unidirectional in their effects. They served to be both sources of positive and negative satisfaction. The personal factors like  skill, experience, education, mental health have a significant influence on the overall job satisfaction. The latter studies have also identified that job security, recognition for good work and good environment are treated as more important than promotion making. These findings are mostly observed in technology driven and heavy equipment industries like computers, satellite, four wheeler industries. The important factors identified in the earlier studies related to job satisfaction are the poor working condition, peer group behavior, routine nature of the job and the working hours. These particular findings from the majority of the researches conducted in western business environments were typically from software based industries and business operating with severe time constraints, stiff deadlines and varying work order In contrast lack of alternative job opportunity, job insecurity, profit centered company policies with limited employee welfare orientation, absence of recognition were major causes of dissatisfaction . Job satisfaction leads to various problems.  Some of these are absenteeism, turnover and negative publicity.  Absenteeism is inversely related to the level of job satisfaction.  Job dissatisfaction produces a lack of will to work and forces the employee to go away from work as far as  possible.  It is also found that dissatisfied worker quit the job over time and seek satisfaction elsewhere.Objectives of the Study: To find out the level of job satisfaction of call center employees. To find out the level of job satisfaction of male and female call center employees. To study  overall job satisfaction according to some personal factors. To study level of satisfaction with various aspects of job. To study level of satisfaction with family and social life of call center employees. The Brayfield – Rothe Scale of 18 items was used. The scale for Perceived Importance of Job Facets was used to measure relative importance of the specific job factors. Specific aspects of the job (functional commonalities were associated and attempts were made to keep the nature and hierarchial diversity of job content to possible minimum) in the form of fourteen items were given in a five point scale. A pilot study over a small sample (respondents known to the researcher and whose opinion are not accounted for in the latter study) was undertaken to modify the questionnaire. A split -Half technique tested the reliability of the questionnaire where the reliability coefficient (0.75) was statistically significant. A part of the questionnaire also covered the job facets and life satisfaction components covering job related factors and personal factors. In this section the first part covered ten factors concerning the satisfaction regarding specific aspects of the job. The response pattern was in a dichotomous format. The question related to satisfaction with family and social life were also put in dichotomous format with options of satisfaction / dissatisfaction. Open-ended questions were put to supplement the exploration through structured questionnaire and to understand the major causes of job dissatisfaction.Results: Some of the relevant and significant results of the study are presented in the following tables.

Table 1: Level of satisfaction with the job and the organization

Respondent’s With the job With the institute Satisfaction 109 37 Dissatisfaction 41 113

The results from the table shows that majority respondents (73%) are satisfied with the job they are doing whereas a majority (75%) is dissatisfied with the organisation in which they are working. This finding is self-contradictory. As an explanation it is observed that the nature and content of the job is the driving fore behind satisfaction whereas the apprehensions and operational problems for long term survival of the institute are the indicators of dissatisfaction. Table: 2 The mean ranks and rank orders of the college professors, assistant professors and lecturer’s ratings ofperceived importance of specific job aspects to the overall satisfaction.

Aspects of jobMean Ranks

Rank Orders

Salary 4.14 1 Autonomy in Operation 4.08 2 Recognition for Good Work 4.02 3 Desired Job 4 4 Opportunity for Compensatory Overtime 4 4 Open Communication 3.92 5 Job Status 3.88 6 Participatory Decision Making 3.85 7 Work Autonomy 3.80 8 Working Environment 3.77 9 Relation with Colleagues 3.61 10 Job Variety 2.66 11 Working Hours 2.51 12 Job Security 2.03 13

From Table – 2, it is observed that salary is rated highest for providing job satisfaction. The nature of the job with its scope for creative execution finds a higher rating compared to the issues like job security. Extended working hours and fear of loss of job due to venture failure creates the highest dissatisfaction with rating scores below the average values.Table: 3 Mean differences in overall job satisfaction according to some personalfactors. Age up to 25 years 63.62 7.00 0.08 N.S. Age above 25 years 63.33 7.94 Experience up to 1 year 65.18 10.21 -1.95 Experience above 1 year 65.48 6.32 -1.96 < .05 Female 64.14 6.08 -3.3 N.S. Male 64.65 7.00 Married 63.62 7.61 Unmarried 62.28 8.43 -0.10 N.S. From the analysis of table – 3 it is evident that there is no significant influence of personal factors on the overall job satisfaction except experience. Table: 4 Level of satisfaction with various aspects of job: Aspects of jobPercentage ofsatisfiedemployeesPercentage ofdissatisfiedemployeesChiSquarep Job Security 56 94 6.76 < .01 Working Hours 70 80 1.96 NS Job Status 60 90 4.00 <.05 Salary 120 30 33 <.01 Working Condition 45 105 16 <.01 Recognition for Good Work 101 49 6.76 <.01 Participatory Management 90 60 4.84 <.05 Peer Group Relation 99 51 7.84 <.01 Open Communication 94 56 6.76 <.01 Work Autonomy 102 48 5.76 <.01 Behavior of Boss 105 45 14.44 <.01 From the analysis of Table – 4, it is found that a significant percentage of the respondents were dissatisfied with job security, job status, working hours, working condition. On the other hand, it is observed that a high percentage of respondents are satisfied on parameters like salary, recognition for good work, peer group relation, work autonomy and behavior of boss through participatory management style and the facility of open communication with the boss. Table 5: Level of satisfaction with family and social life of call center employees FactorPercentage ofsatisfiedemployeesPercentage ofdissatisfiedemployeesChi-squarep Family life 39 111 23.04 <.01 Social life 30 120 38.44 <.01 From the analysis of table No.5, it is observed that a majority of the respondents are dissatisfied with their family and social life. These may be attributed to the fact of extended working hours, non-regular life style and work pressure reflected in social behavior of the call center employees.Table 6: Correlation between job satisfaction and performance of respondents No. of respondentsrtp 150 .69 2.80 <.01 From tale – 6, it is found that there is a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and performance. The sense of accomplishment due to project mode of operation and creative execution is one of the factor responsible for the high correlation between job satisfaction and performance. Table 7: Correlation between job satisfaction and perception of job security of the Call center employees No. of respondentsrtp 150 – .31 2.85 <.05 The result from the table – 7 reveals that there is a significant negative correlation between the level of satisfaction and perception of the employees on the job security. The concept of high volatility of call center business has gone in to the mind of employees for which their apprehensions regarding tenure of job in the life of the company has a negative correlation. Table 8: Correlation between Job satisfaction and Job status No. of respondents r t p 150 – .45 2.69 <.01 Though  call center  are offering an exorbitantly high salary structure, the respondents did not find the usual job status associated with the salary. So we observe job satisfaction having a negative correlation with job status. Table 9: Important causes of job dissatisfaction as perceived by the call center employees Causes of DissatisfactionPercentage Volatile Nature of Industry 73% Turn Around of Venture Capitalists 70% Faulty Business Model 68% Market non-responsiveness 60% Lack of Job Security 60% Lack of Job Status 59% Problem of Family & Social Life 57% CONCLUSION: The present study highlights some of the major reasons for creating job dissatisfaction among call center employees. Although conventional sources of dissatisfaction like salary, promotion, security, autonomy for work are not relevant in call center business but the level of satisfaction is limited due to some emerging phenomenon like volatile industry structure, flat organizational design, literally a non-responsive market and other allied factors. So the probability of managing these dissatisfaction indicators at the organization level seems a remote solution. The intervention of psycho-social machinery for creation of intra-organisation and inter-industry job confidence is the call of the day for increasing job satisfaction levels in the call center industry. References 1. Gadel M.S.(1953): Personnel Psychology, volume 6. 2. Hertzberg F., Mausner, B., Peterson, R.O. Capwell, D.F. (1957), Job Attitudes : Review of Research and Opinion. Pittsburg : Psychological Service of Pittsburg 3. Katzell R.S.(1964): Personal values, job satisfaction and job behaviour. 4. Nicholson , N; Broon, C.A. and Shadwick – Jones, T.K. (1977) Absence from work and personal characteristics, Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, (315-327). 5. Wernimont P.F.(1966): intrinsic and extrinsic factors in job satisfaction and job involvement. Abnormal psychology, vol 50. Keywords: Performance planning, performance appraisal, job satisfaction, employee involvement, employ’s empowerment, congenial conditions.

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